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How Ultrasonic Sensors Work

Ultrasonic sensors are common parts of many automated factories and other robotic areas of endeavor, in part because they’re easy to understand and in part because they’re easy to use. All ultrasonic sensors have this much in common: they release a pulse of sound too high in pitch for human ears to hear, and they have a sensor in place that ‘hears’ the echo of the pulse after it has bounced off of any objects in the immediate environment. The distance between the sensor and the object is calculated based on the time it takes for the sonic pulse to return to the point of origin.

The sonic pulse is created by a part called a ‘transducer’ that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy, and then mechanical energy into sonic energy. There are two kinds of transducers: piezo, and electrostatic.

Piezo transducers involve a ceramic or crystalline material bonded to a metallic cone or case. The materials in piezo transducers are special insofar as they exhibit the unusual property of converting electricity into mechanical force or vice versa: a piezoelectric crystal will generate electricity if it is forced to bend, or it will bend when electricity is applied. It’s the latter principle used in the piezo transducer: electricity is applied in extremely rapid on-off cycles, causing the crystal (or, rarely, ceramic structure with the same property) to vibrate rapidly against the metallic cone or case, causing a sound. The faster the on/off cycle of the electricity, the higher in pitch the sound created. Obviously, in ultrasonic sensors, the cycle is extremely fast and the sound produced is beyond human hearing.

In an electrostatic transducer, two plates are fixed very near to each other. One plate is aluminum, and the other consists of two layers: an inner layer of a polyimide film called Kapton, and an outer layer of gold. Kapton is a strong, light, insulative plastic that is primarily there to take up space. When an electric charge is introduced to both the gold and aluminum, they become attracted to one another and slap together. Much like the piezo transducer, this means that the more rapidly you pulse the electricity going into the electrostatic transducer, the higher the soundform that comes out.

Safety Guidelines When Using an Air Compressor

From industrial equipment, power tools at home, paint sprays and so much more, air compressors are now widely used. The range of compressors from Peerless Engineering include some of the most famous types in the market. Although air compressors can now easily be found in homes, the risks and dangers they pose should not be overlooked. If used safely, our air compressors can offer you a lot of benefits. Here are some precautions you can take when using them.


How to Prevent Bodily Harm

Compressed air can be dangerous, therefore it should never be directed at any person’s skin. An injury can occur even on a low pressure. It might be tempting to clean dirt from another person or yourself, but never do it. Compressed air is not intended for breathing or inhaling, unless it comes from a system that has been specifically designed for breathing, and has a proper air filter and regulator in place.

Always wear safety goggles or any suitable face shield while cleaning with an air compressor to prevent damage to your eyes. You should also wear ear protection, as using compressed air can be noisy.


How to Care for the Hoses

Pressurized hoses should always be treated with care. When under pressure, they should never be coupled, uncoupled, or crimped. Before you connect or disconnect hoses, make sure that all valves are bled down and all valves are switched off.

Before using air, always make it a point to check your hoses. Inspect them for damages before starting your task. When storing away your hoses, find a storage place that is away from direct sunlight  or any heat. If you can store it on a reel, damage is significantly minimized.


Safety While Using an Air Compressor

Follow the OSHA regulations for cleaning with compressed air. For safety reasons, The pressure should not go beyond 30PSIG. You must also inspect if you have used the correct clamps and fittings on your air hoses. Using the wrong ones can be very dangerous.

It is also important to make sure that the end of the hose, where the compressed air is coming out from, is securely held at all times. If they aren’t, the hose can be detached and can whip around. This can easily cause injuries.